Based on participants' concerns, translations for four of the nine symptoms were revised: drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, and shortness of breath. Concerns expressed for three additional symptoms depression, anxiety, and well-being were related to overall difficulty rating these symptoms, not specific to the translation. The study findings provide a vital step in the development of. The aims of the present study were to translate and culturally adapt the PIDAQ's native English version into French , and to test the psychometric characteristics of the version thereby obtained.
Toward these ends, the PIDAQ's original English version was translated into French and back-translated into English following the prescribed guidelines.
Each of the versions obtained from the translation process was further subjected to a committee review. The final French version which is named QIPEO underwent an analysis of psychometric properties on a sample of 42 subjects 33 females and 9 males, aged Internal consistency was good with Cronbach ff coefficients ranging from 0.
The reproducibility of the responses given by 14 subjects after 15 days interval was correct with intraclass coefficients ranging from 0. Furthermore, the different subscales of the French version of the PIDAQ showed excellent correlation with the perception of aesthetics and fairly good correlation with self-perception of orthodontic treatment need. Definite need for orthodontic treatment, as assessed normatively by the IOTN, was significantly associated with lower scores of "self-confidence" and higher scores of "social impact", "psychological impact" and "aesthetic concerns".
Further studies including a larger sample size is recommended to reassess the validation and the responsiveness of this French version. Parental practices perceived by children using a French version of the Kids' Child Feeding Questionnaire. Parental feeding practices, especially restriction and pressure-to-eat, seem to promote overeating in children. The questionnaire was completed by normal-weighted or overweight children between the age of 9 and The validation was based on a confirmatory factor analysis.
The internal consistency of factors was confirmed using Cronbach's coefficients. This paper presents and discusses the initial findings of a mobile language learning project undertaken in the context of an undergraduate distance-learning French language programme at The Open University UK. The overall objective of the project was to investigate students' experiences when using their own portable devices for additional…. While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language L2 fluency in English as a second language ESL , there has been little investigation with French learners.
This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…. The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies.
This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism.mitititol.tk
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It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right.
It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world. Conducted on French Language Teaching students, this research aims to determine the causes of writing anxiety. Designed in accordance with the mixed method, a writing anxiety inventory, a language proficiency exam, a retrospective composing-process questionnaire, a writing attitude scale and semi-structured interviews were used.
After identifying…. The present longitudinal study examines the interaction of learner variables gender, motivation, self-efficacy, and first language literacy and their influence on second language learning outcomes. The study follows English learners of French from Year 5 in primary school aged to the first year in secondary school Year 7; aged This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language L2 teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA.
The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail e-mail differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French , a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns unfamiliar….
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While the research literature on second language L2 fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language , little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between….
Enseignement de la langue francaise au Maroc et dialogue des cultures Teaching of the French Language in Morocco and Dialogue of Cultures. In the process of Arabization of Morocco, it is necessary to maintain French language instruciton, but as a necessary foreign language and not as a primary language. French remains an important part of Morocco's diverse cultural identity. CLIPS 6. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files.
CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules.
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This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. Factorial structure, reliability, and responsiveness.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a well-known comorbidity in children with epilepsy. In English-speaking countries, the scores of the original ADHD-rating scale IV are currently used as main outcomes in various clinical trials in children with epilepsy. In French -speaking countries, several French versions are in use though none has been fully validated yet.
The factorial structure and item reliability were assessed with a confirmatory factorial analysis for ordered categorical variables. The dimensions' internal consistency was assessed with Guttman's lambda 6 coefficient. The responsiveness was assessed by the change in score under methylphenidate and in comparison with a control group.
It can now be used in French -speaking countries in clinical trials of treatments involving children with ADHD and epilepsy. The full validation requires further investigations. CLIPS is designed to enable research on, and development and delivery of, artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Rule-based programming: representation of knowledge as heuristics - essentially, rules of thumb that specify set of actions performed in given situation. Object-oriented programming: modeling of complex systems comprised of modular components easily reused to model other systems or create new components.
Data was obtained from three samples. We tested internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. We examined test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. To verify the validity of the cut-off scores, a ROC curve was constructed which evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of each score compared to the diagnosis with the CAPS-CA.
Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0. The Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief questionnaire is a widely validated tool for estimating the health related quality of life and for assessing the best multidisciplinary management of burn patients. Ten of them have been re-tested at 6 months after the first evaluation. To evaluate clinical utility of the BSHS-F, internal consistency, construct validity using SF and stability in time were assessed using Cronbach's alpha statistic, Spearman rank test, and intra-class correlation coefficient respectively.
French version of the BSHS-B and the SF were positively correlated, all the associations were statistically significant p French version of the BSHS-B shows a robust rate of internal consistency, construct validity and stability in time, supporting its application in routine clinical practice as well as in international studies. If devices restricted to An increasing number of medications restricted to One required French clinical investigation centers CICs are academic platforms dedicated to clinical research. The aim was also to make it more accurate and to reinforce requirements about participants safety and data security.
An explanatory document, currently being drafted, will complete the manual to facilitate its implementation. This instrument includes a pool of items organized around 25 facets included in a five-factor second-order domain structure. The examination of the replicability of the trait structure across methods and populations is of primary importance. In particular, the assumption of unidimensionality of the 25 facet and the five domain scales was tested, as well as the extent to which the five-factor structure of the PID-5 and the DSM-5 personality trait hierarchical structure are replicated in the current sample.
The results support the assumption of unidimensionality of both the facets and the domains. Exploratory factor and hierarchical analyses replicated the five-factor structure as initially proposed in the PID Cross-sectional survey of the safety culture. Full- and part-time healthcare providers who worked in the units. Item responses measured with 5-point agreement or frequency scales. Data analyses A principal component analysis was used to identify the emerging components.
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Internal consistency of the retained dimensions was studied. A test-retest was performed to assess reproducibility of the items.
A structure in 40 items grouped in 10 dimensions was proposed. Internal consistency was above 0. Reproducibility was considered good for four items. Classification of the dimensions should guide future development of safety culture improving action plans. The traditional upper-level course in French civilization at Utah State University was abandoned in favor of a course entitled "France Today," taught once a year to a consistent enrollment of students majoring in a wide variety of disciplines.
The content varies somewhat each year, but the class typically begins with several class…. The PISA project provides the basis for studying curriculum design and for comparing factors associated with school effectiveness. These studies are only valid if the different language versions are equivalent to each other. In Spain, the application of PISA in autonomous regions with their own languages means that equivalency must also be extended to the Spanish, Galician, Catalan and Basque versions of the test.